The Academic Motivation Scale (AMS)

The Echelle de Motivation en Education (EME) is based on the tenets of self-determination theory and is composed of 28 items subdivided into 7 subscales assessing three types of intrinsic motivation (intrinsic motivation to know, to accomplish things, and to experience stimulation), three types of extrinsic motivation (external, introjected, and identified regulation), and amotivation. The EME was translated into English and named the Academic Motivation Scale. The English version, the AMS, showed satisfactory levels of internal consistency temporal stability over a one-month period. A confirmatory factor analysis confirmed the 7-factor structure of the AMS.  A college version is also available.


Self Management,
Social Awareness

Motivation, Internal Motivation, External Motivation, Amotivation

9th Grade,
10th Grade,
11th Grade,
12th Grade,
Post secondary

Administration Information

15-20 minutes

Access and Use

Open Access
Use in Research

Alt, D. (2015). College students’ academic motivation, media engagement and fear of missing out. Computers in Human Behavior, 49, 111-119.

Fortier, M. S., Vallerand, R. J., & Guay, F. (1995). Academic motivation and school performance: Toward a structural model. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 20(3), 257-274.

Senecal, C., Koestner, R., & Vallerand, R. J. (1995). Self-regulation and academic procrastination. The Journal of Social Psychology, 135(5), 607-619.

Tanaka, M., Mizuno, K., Fukuda, S., Tajima, S., & Watanabe, Y. (2009). Personality traits associated with intrinsic academic motivation in medical students. Medical Education, 43(4), 384-387.


Manual scoring
Psychometric References

Cokley, K. O., Bernard, N., Cunningham, D., & Motoike, J. (2001). A psychometric investigation of the academic motivation scale using a United States sample. Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development, 34(2), 109-119.

Fairchild, A. J., Horst, S. J., Finney, S. J., & Barron, K. E. (2005). Evaluating existing and new validity evidence for the Academic Motivation Scale. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 30(3), 331-358.

Stover, J. B., de la Iglesia, G., Boubeta, A. R., & Liporace, M. F. (2012). Academic Motivation Scale: Adaptation and psychometric analyses for high school and college students. Psychology Research and Behavior Management, 5, 71-83.

Vallerand, R. J., Pelletier, L. G., Blais, M. R., Brière, N. M., Senecal, C., & Vallières, É. F. (1993). On the assessment of intrinsic, extrinsic, and amotivation in education: Evidence on the concurrent and construct validity of the Academic Motivation Scale. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 53(1), 159-172.

Vallerand, R. J., Pelletier, L. G., Blais, M. R., Briere, N. M., Senecal, C., & Vallieres, E. F. (1992). The Academic Motivation Scale: A measure of intrinsic, extrinsic, and amotivation in education. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 52(4), 1003-1017.

Item Type