The ARC self determination scale, developed in 1995, assesses the self-determination strengths and weaknesses of adolescents with disabilities, facilitates student involvement in their education, and aids in developing self-determination goals for students. The assessment yields a total self-determination score and four subscores (autonomy, self-regulation, psychological empowerment, and self-realization). Raw scores are converted into percentile scores using available data on norms. An adult version of the scale was developed later.
Autonomy, Self Regulation, Psychological Empowerment, Self Realization
No credentials required, but Administrator/Scorer should familiarize themselves with the guide & topics. Ideally should be a researcher, psychologist, or teacher.
Access and Use
Michael L. Wehmeyer
Jameson, D. R. (2007). Self-determination and success outcomes of two-year college students with disabilities. Journal of College Reading and Learning, 37(2), 26-46. https://doi.org/10.1080/10790195.2007.10850196
Lee, Y., Wehmeyer, M. L., Palmer, S. B., Williams-Diehm, K., Davies, D. K., & Stock, S. E. (2012). Examining individual and instruction-related predictors of the self-determination of students with disabilities: Multiple regression analyses. Remedial and Special Education, 33(3), 150-161. https://doi.org/10.1177/0741932510392053
Shogren, K. A., Wehmeyer, M. L., Palmer, S. B., Soukup, J. H., Little, T. D., Garner, N., & Lawrence, M. (2008). Understanding the construct of self-determination: examining the relationship between the Arc's Self-Determination Scale and the American Institutes for Research Self-Determination Scale. Assessment for Effective Intervention, 33(2), 94-107. https://doi.org/10.1177/1534508407311395
Wehmeyer, M., & Schwartz, M. (1997). Self-determination and positive adult outcomes: A follow-up study of youth with mental retardation or learning disabilities. Exceptional Children, 63(2), 245-255. https://doi.org/10.1177/001440299706300207