The ARC self determination scale, developed in 1995, assesses the self-determination strengths and weaknesses of adolescents with disabilities, facilitates student involvement in their education, and aids in developing self-determination goals for students. The assessment yields a total self-determination score and four subscores (autonomy, self-regulation, psychological empowerment, and self-realization). Raw scores are converted into percentile scores using available data on norms. An adult version of the scale was developed later.
Autonomy, Self-regulation, Psychological empowerment, and Self-realization
No credentials required, but Administrator/Scorer should familiarize themselves with the guide & topics. Ideally should be a researcher, psychologist, or teacher.
Access and Use
Michael L. Wehmeyer
Jameson, D. R. (2007). Self-determination and success outcomes of two-year college students with disabilities. Journal of College Reading and Learning, 37(2), 26-46. https://doi.org/10.1080/10790195.2007.10850196
Lee, Y., Wehmeyer, M. L., Palmer, S. B., Williams-Diehm, K., Davies, D. K., & Stock, S. E. (2012). Examining individual and instruction-related predictors of the self-determination of students with disabilities: Multiple regression analyses. Remedial and Special Education, 33(3), 150-161. https://doi.org/10.1177/0741932510392053
Shogren, K. A., Wehmeyer, M. L., Palmer, S. B., Soukup, J. H., Little, T. D., Garner, N., & Lawrence, M. (2008). Understanding the construct of self-determination: examining the relationship between the Arc's Self-Determination Scale and the American Institutes for Research Self-Determination Scale. Assessment for Effective Intervention, 33(2), 94-107. https://doi.org/10.1177/1534508407311395
Wehmeyer, M. L., Palmer, S. B., Soukup, J. H., Garner, N. W., & Lawrence, M. (2007). Self-determination and student transition planning knowledge and skills: Predicting involvement. Exceptionality, 15(1), 31-44.
Wehmeyer, M., & Schwartz, M. (1997). Self-determination and positive adult outcomes: A follow-up study of youth with mental retardation or learning disabilities. Exceptional Children, 63(2), 245-255. https://doi.org/10.1177/001440299706300207
Wehmeyer, M. L. (1995). The ARC's Self-Determination Scale: Procedural Guidelines. https://thearc.org/wp-content/uploads/forchapters/SD%20Scale%20Procedural%20Guidelines.pdf