Framework for Teaching (FfT)

Framework for Teaching is a classroom observation instrument that can be used for measuring and evaluating the instructional quality of all teachers (from pre-service to experienced) across grades K-12. The measure can be flexibly used by classroom teachers for professional learning, school leaders for evaluation, researchers for measurement, and system leaders as a common language for organizing the profession.


Classroom Instruction,
Teacher Knowledge,
Teacher Skills,
Teacher Beliefs,
Teacher Self-Efficacy
9th Grade,
10th Grade,
11th Grade,
12th Grade

Administration Information

There are 77 elements across 22 components covering four domains (Planning and Preparation; The Classroom Environment; Instruction; Professional Responsibilities). Suggested duration of use is not provided.

Training workshop prices vary by length. As of 2019, workshops cost ~$400 per person per day. Workshops for training evaluators using the measure for high-stakes evaluation are also available.

Workshops and onsite support can be purchased.
National Sample

Access and Use

Peer-Reviewed Study Citations

"Mantzicopoulos, P., French, B. F., Patrick, H., Watson, J. S., & Ahn, I. (2018) The stability of kindergarten teachers’ effectiveness: A generalizability study comparing the Framework For Teaching and the Classroom Assessment Scoring System, Educational Assessment, 23:1, 24-46

Pharis, T. J., Allen, L., Mahoney, J. V. & Sullivan, S.. (2018). Implementation of the Teacher Professional Growth and Effectiveness System in Rural Kentucky High Schools. International Journal of Education Policy & Leadership, 13(5).

Wenner, J. A., & Kittleson, J. (2018). Focused Video Reflections in Concert With Practice-Based Structures to Support Elementary Teacher Candidates in Learning to Teach Science. Journal of Science Teacher Education, 29(8), 741–759."


Manual scoring
Open Access
Used in Peer-Reviewed Research
Psychometric Citations

"Kane, T. J. & Staiger, D. O. (2012) Gathering Feedback for Teaching: Combining High-Quality Observations with Student Surveys and Achievement Gains. Research Paper: Measures of Effective Teaching Project. Seattle, WA: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

Lash, A., Tran, L., and Huang, M. (2016). Examining the validity of ratings from a classroom observation instrument for use in a district’s teacher evaluation system (REL 2016–135). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance, Regional Educational Laboratory West.

Sartain, L., Stoelinga, S. R., & Brown, E. R. (2011) Rethinking Teacher Evaluation in Chicago: Lessons Learned from Classroom Observations, Principal-Teacher Conferences, and District Implementation. Research Report. Chicago, IL: Consortium on Chicago School Research at the University of Chicago."