Scale Development:We retained the seven NGSE items Chen and Gully (1997) had found to be distinct from the SGSE scale and self-esteem. Because we wanted to ensure that the content domain of GSE would be well captured by the NGSE scale, we created seven additional NGSE items, intending to eliminate redundancies later. Consistent with procedures employed by Chen and Gully, when wording the new items we carefully referred to Eden’s GSE conceptualization, which is consistent with definitions provided by other researchers (Gardner & Pierce, 1998; Judge et al., 1997; Judge, Erez, et al.,1998). Each of the first two authors independently generated between three and five new items. We combined the items and rewrote or eliminated any that were poorly worded, were clear duplicates, or seemed inconsistent with our GSE definition. The third author then reviewed the items for clarity, consistency with theory, and redundancy. This effort yielded a total of 14 NGSE items, 7 of which were new and 7 carried over from Chen and Gully’s study. The NGSE scale was scored on a 5-point Likert-type scale from strongly disagree (1) to strongly agree (5).
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Peer-Reviewed Study Citations
Garza, K. K., Bain, S. F., & Kupczynski, L. (2014). Resiliency, self-efficacy, and persistence of college seniors in higher education. Research in Higher Education Journal, 26, 1. https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1055323.pdf