Instruments

Displaying 1 - 50 of 107

The Adult Adolescent Parenting Inventory (AAPI-2.1) is a 40-item self-reporting inventory that measures parental behaviors and is commonly used to assess the risk of child abuse and neglect. The AAPI-2.1 provides five subscales: expectations of children, parental empathy towards children's needs, use of corporal punishment, parent-child family roles, and children's power and independence. The instrument is offered in English, Spanish, Creole, and Arabic.

Domain: Home and Community

Subdomain: Parenting Attitudes and Behaviors

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The aimswebPlus is the newest version of aimsweb assessments for students in grades PreK-12. Each of the standards-aligned test's subtests can be administered in under four minutes. The assessment can be used for progress monitoring and as a universal screening tool. aimswebPlus is available in both English and Spanish.

Domain: Academic Knowledge and Skills

Subdomain: Math

Grades: Kindergarten, 1st Grade, 2nd Grade, 3rd Grade, 4th Grade, 5th Grade, 6th Grade, 7th Grade, 8th Grade, 9th Grade, 10th Grade, 11th Grade, 12th Grade

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The aimswebPlus is the newest version of aimsweb assessments for students in grades PreK-12. Each of the standards-aligned reading test's subtests can be administered in under four minutes. The assessment can be used for progress monitoring and as a universal screening tool for dyslexia and behavior. aimswebPlus is available in both English and Spanish.

Domain: Academic Knowledge and Skills

Subdomain: English Language Arts

Grades: Kindergarten, 1st Grade, 2nd Grade, 3rd Grade, 4th Grade, 5th Grade, 6th Grade, 7th Grade, 8th Grade, 9th Grade, 10th Grade, 11th Grade, 12th Grade

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aReading, or Adaptive Reading, is an assessment that measures the reading skills of students grades K-12. The test can be used to screen and identify students at risk for academic delays, but is not meant for progress monitoring. aReading is a computer adaptive and contains both multiple-choice and open response questions.

Domain: Academic Knowledge and Skills

Subdomain: English Language Arts

Grades: Kindergarten, 1st Grade, 2nd Grade, 3rd Grade, 4th Grade, 5th Grade, 6th Grade, 7th Grade, 8th Grade, 9th Grade, 10th Grade, 11th Grade, 12th Grade

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Assessing Teacher Learning About Science Teaching (ATLAST) teacher assessments designed to measure teacher knowledge in a specific content area. Assessments exist in the following content areas: Flow of Matter and Energy in Living Systems; Force and Motion; and Plate Tectonics. All questions are set in instructional contexts, with some items requiring teachers to analyze student thinking or to choose among instructional responses to student thinking. The measure has been used as a pre- and post-test to assess the effects of professional development programs. There are also corresponding student written assessments.

Domain: Schooling

Subdomain: Teaching

Grades: 6th Grade, 7th Grade, 8th Grade

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The Boehm Test of Basic Concepts Third Edition (Boehm-3) is a comprehensive assessment for children grades K-2 that contains 50 basic concepts. The test can be used to identify students at risk for academic delays and to monitor progress. Boehm-3 is available in both English and Spanish.

Domain: Academic Knowledge and Skills

Subdomain: English Language Arts

Grades: Kindergarten, 1st Grade, 2nd Grade

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The Boehm-3 Preschool assessment contains 26 basic concepts for children in preschool. The test can be used to identify students who are behind in comprehending basic relational concepts. The tool allows educators to assess each concept twice and can be administered in less than 30 minutes. Boehm-3 Preschool is available in both English and Spanish.

Domain: Academic Knowledge and Skills

Subdomain: English Language Arts

Grades: Pre-Kindergarten

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The Bracken Basic Concept Scale Third Edition consists of the Receptive test (BBCS-3:R) and the Expressive test (BBCS-3:E). BBCS-3:R assesses children's cognitive and language development using non-verbal tasks, wile BBCS-3:E requires the child to verbally respond. The Bracken Basic Concept Scale, which aligns with IDEA 2004 requirements, can screen children for school readiness and identify those with developmental delays. The assessment's results can be used in conjunction with the Bracken Concept Development Program to plan intervention. The Bracken Basic Concept Scale is available in both English and Spanish.

Domain: Academic Knowledge and Skills

Subdomain: English Language Arts

Grades: Pre-Kindergarten, Kindergarten, 1st Grade

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The BRIGANCE Comprehensive Inventory of Basic Skills II is a comprehensive assessment for students in grades K-9 and contains over 400 tests for reading/ELA and mathematics. The assessment is aligned with state and national standards and can be used for monitoring progress, providing ongoing assessment, and writing IEPs. The CIBS offers both criterion-referenced and norm-referenced measures.

Domain: Academic Knowledge and Skills

Subdomain: English Language Arts

Grades: Kindergarten, 1st Grade, 2nd Grade, 3rd Grade, 4th Grade, 5th Grade, 6th Grade, 7th Grade, 8th Grade, 9th Grade

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The BRIGANCE Early Childhood Screens III is a short screening tool that can be used to identify students for delays and giftedness. The assessment is offered for three age ranges: 0-35 months, 3-5 years, and K and 1st grade. The tool can be administered in less than 15 minutes per child, in both English and Spanish.

Domain: Academic Knowledge and Skills

Subdomain: English Language Arts

Grades: < 3 Years, Pre-Kindergarten, Kindergarten, 1st Grade

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The BRIGANCE Head Start Screens III is a developmental screening tool that allows educators to assess children's readiness for kindergarten and identify delays or giftedness. The tool is offered for two age ranges: 0-2 years and 3-5 years. The Head Start Screens III is aligned with and correlated to the Head Start Early Learning Outcomes Framework. The tool can be administered in less than 15 minutes per child, in both English and Spanish.

Domain: Academic Knowledge and Skills

Subdomain: English Language Arts

Grades: < 3 Years, Pre-Kindergarten, Kindergarten

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The Inventory of Early Development III (IED III) is a comprehensive tool that contains over 100 assessments that are aligned to state and national standards as well as IDEA requirements. The tool can be used to provide ongoing assessment, monitor progress, and write IEPs for students from birth to grade 8. The IED III offers both criterion-referenced and norm-referenced measures.

Domain: Academic Knowledge and Skills

Subdomain: English Language Arts

Grades: < 3 Years, Pre-Kindergarten, Kindergarten, 1st Grade, 2nd Grade

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The CARE-Index is an observation instrument that measures mother-child interaction and is designed for children ages birth to 2 years. The instrument, which requires a short videotaped play interaction, provides sensitivity, control and unresponsiveness subscales for mothers and cooperativeness, compulsivity, difficultness, and passivity subscales for children.

Domain: Home and Community

Subdomain: Parent-Child Interactions

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Children's Progress Academic Assessment (CPAA) is a computer-adaptive assessment that measures early mathematics skills. The instrument, which is available in English and Spanish, can be taken 3-9 times a year and is untimed. CPAA is aligned with the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) and with the Common Core State Standards (CCSS).

Domain: Academic Knowledge and Skills

Subdomain: Math

Grades: Pre-Kindergarten, Kindergarten, 1st Grade, 2nd Grade, 3rd Grade, 4th Grade, 5th Grade

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The Classroom Assessment Scoring System™ (CLASS™) is an observational instrument developed to assess instructional quality in PK-12 classrooms. It is a tool for analyzing the quality of teacher-student interactions in the classroom by capturing multiple dimensions of teaching that are linked to student achievement and development. It produces qualitative ratings of teacher performance on a scale from 1-7 across three broad domains: emotional support, classroom organization, and instructional support.

Domain: Schooling

Subdomain: Teaching

Grades: Pre-Kindergarten, 1st Grade, 2nd Grade, 3rd Grade, 4th Grade, 5th Grade, 6th Grade, 7th Grade, 8th Grade, 9th Grade, 10th Grade, 11th Grade, 12th Grade

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COEMET is a classroom observation instrument that evaluates classroom culture and the use of specific math activities. It includes questions about how actively the teacher interacts with the children, how the teacher uses teachable math moments, how math is displayed in the physical environmental of the room, how confident the teacher appeared about math, etc. The specific math activities measured are not connected a specific curriculum.

Domain: Schooling

Subdomain: Teaching

Grades: Pre-Kindergarten, 1st Grade, 2nd Grade, 3rd Grade, 4th Grade, 5th Grade

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The Classroom Practices Inventory is a classroom observation measure for early childhood classrooms. It is designed to assess the developmental appropriateness of classroom and curricular practices, teachers actions, children's activites, and teacher-child interactions.

Domain: Schooling

Subdomain: Teaching

Grades: Pre-Kindergarten

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The CogAT is an asssessment for students in grades K-12 that was co-developed with the Iowa Assessments. There are three batteries: verbal, quantitative, and non-verbal. The CogAT can be used to differentiate instruction and identify strengths and weaknesses. Each test takes 15 minutes or less to administer, and can be offered in English and Spanish.

Domain: Academic Knowledge and Skills

Subdomain: English Language Arts

Grades: Kindergarten, 1st Grade, 2nd Grade, 3rd Grade, 4th Grade, 5th Grade, 6th Grade, 7th Grade, 8th Grade, 9th Grade, 10th Grade, 11th Grade, 12th Grade

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The Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processing Second Edition (CTOPP-2) is an assessment that focuses on measuring the phonological processing abilities of students grades PreK-12. The CTOPP-2 contains several composites: phonological awareness, phonological memory, rapid symbolic naming, rapid non-symbolic naming, and alternate phonological awareness.

Domain: Academic Knowledge and Skills

Subdomain: English Language Arts

Grades: Pre-Kindergarten, Kindergarten, 1st Grade, 2nd Grade, 3rd Grade, 4th Grade, 5th Grade, 6th Grade, 7th Grade, 8th Grade, 9th Grade, 10th Grade, 11th Grade, 12th Grade

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The CTOBS-2 is an assessment that measures the math and reading skills of children ages 6 to 11. The instrument can be administered in 15-20 minutes and offers Frustration, Instructional, and Mastery level performance criteria.

Domain: Academic Knowledge and Skills

Subdomain: Math

Grades: Kindergarten, 1st Grade, 2nd Grade, 3rd Grade, 4th Grade, 5th Grade, 6th Grade

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The Developmental Reading Assessment Second Edition, PLUS (DRA2+) is a system that measures students' reading performance. The tool can be used by educators to identify each student's instructional needs and to inform practices. The DRA2 Benchmark Assessment consists of four steps: reading engagement, reading conference, reading comprehension, and teacher anlysis. The assessment is available in both English and Spanish (Evaluación del desarrollo de la lectura is the bilingual version modeled off of DRA2).

Domain: Academic Knowledge and Skills

Subdomain: English Language Arts

Grades: Kindergarten, 1st Grade, 2nd Grade, 3rd Grade, 4th Grade, 5th Grade, 6th Grade, 7th Grade, 8th Grade

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The Early Language & Literacy Classroom Observation Toolkit (ELLCO) is a classroom observation measure that asesses the quality of the classroom environment and teacher practices across five key literacy elements: classroom structure, curriculum, the language environment, books and book reading opportunities, and print and early writing support. The measure is primarily designed for administrators and teachers of preschool and early elementary classrooms to use for professional development and program improvement.

Domain: Schooling

Subdomain: Teaching

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The Early Learning Scale (ELS) is an assessment that is based on observations of PK students. The instrument covers Math/Science, Social-Emotional/Social Studies, and Language and Literacy, with a Motor Development supplement. The ELS can be used with English Language learners, gifted children, and children with special needs.

Domain: Academic Knowledge and Skills

Subdomain: Math

Grades: Pre-Kindergarten

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The Emotional Availability Scales (EA Scales) measures the quality of parent-child or adult-child interactions. Emotional availability refers to “the adult’s ‘receptive presence’ to the child’s emotional signals” (Biringen and Easterbrooks, 2012). Created by Dr. Zeynep Biringen, Ph.D., in 1987, the instrument is currently in its 4th edition. The EA Scales consist of both adult and child subscales and can be completed in approximately 20 minutes.

Domain: Home and Community

Subdomain: Parent-Child Interactions

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The Early Reading Assessment (ERA) is an assessment for children in grades K-2 that helps educators identify students with delays in reading abilities. Teachers, special educators, speech pathologists, and school psychologists can administer the test. The ERA, which takes 10-15 minutes to complete, contains the written word vocabulary, rapid orthographic naming, and silent orthographic efficiency core subtests that combine to create the Early Reading Index.

Domain: Academic Knowledge and Skills

Subdomain: English Language Arts

Grades: Kindergarten, 1st Grade, 2nd Grade

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The Expressive Vocabulary Test Second Edition (EVT-2) is an assessment that measures expressive vocabulary and word retrieval for Standard American English. The test is created to align with the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test Fourth Edition (PPVT-4). The EVT-2 can be used for monitoring progress and providing interventions. It offers two test forms with different items so that students do not become accustomed to the test.

Domain: Academic Knowledge and Skills

Subdomain: English Language Arts

Grades: Pre-Kindergarten, Kindergarten, 1st Grade, 2nd Grade, 3rd Grade, 4th Grade, 5th Grade, 6th Grade, 7th Grade, 8th Grade, 9th Grade, 10th Grade, 11th Grade, 12th Grade, Post secondary

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CBMreading (Curriculum-Based Measurement for Reading) is an assessment that can be used for screening and monitoring the progress of students in grades 1-12. CBMreading is an index of word reading efficiency, and can be administered in one minute per assessment. The test can be used up to five times per year to screen students and is available in both English and Spanish.

Domain: Academic Knowledge and Skills

Subdomain: English Language Arts

Grades: Kindergarten, 1st Grade, 2nd Grade, 3rd Grade, 4th Grade, 5th Grade, 6th Grade, 7th Grade, 8th Grade, 9th Grade, 10th Grade, 11th Grade, 12th Grade

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The earlyReading assessment is used to monitor the progress of and screen students in grades PreK-1 but can be administered to students up to grade 3. There are 12 subtests within earlyReading, and four subtests can be completed in 5-10 minutes. The earlyReading tool can be used up to five times per year to screen students, and is available in both English and Spanish.

Domain: Academic Knowledge and Skills

Subdomain: English Language Arts

Grades: Pre-Kindergarten, Kindergarten, 1st Grade, 2nd Grade, 3rd Grade

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earlyMath is an assessment for children in grades PreK to 1. The instrument, which contains 14 subtests, can be taken up to five times per year for consistent monitoring. earlyMath can be used for screening and progress monitoring.

Domain: Academic Knowledge and Skills

Subdomain: Math

Grades: Pre-Kindergarten, Kindergarten, 1st Grade

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Framework for Teaching is a classroom observation instrument that can be used for measuring and evaluating the instructional quality of all teachers (from pre-service to experienced) across grades K-12. The measure can be flexibly used by classroom teachers for professional learning, school leaders for evaluation, researchers for measurement, and system leaders as a common language for organizing the profession.

Domain: Schooling

Subdomain: Teaching

Grades: 9th Grade, 10th Grade, 11th Grade, 12th Grade

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The Geometry Assessments for Secondary Teachers (GAST) Classroom Observation Tool classifies the teaching moves and instructional tasks of teachers according to cognitive demand. It is designed for use specifically within math lessons focused on similarity, congruence, surface area, and volume. It can be used by teacher educators and researchers to identify the quality of math instruction within this domain.

Domain: Schooling

Subdomain: Teaching

Grades: Pre-Kindergarten

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The GRADE (Group Reading Assessment and Diagnostic Evaluation) is a reading assessment for students from grade PreK to adult. For grades PreK-3, the diagnostic test measures reading skills that are consistent with the National Reading Panel and Reading First. The GRADE can be used with an RTI program to identify strengths and weaknesses and to track student growth.

Domain: Academic Knowledge and Skills

Subdomain: English Language Arts

Grades: Pre-Kindergarten, Kindergarten, 1st Grade, 2nd Grade, 3rd Grade, 4th Grade, 5th Grade, 6th Grade, 7th Grade, 8th Grade, 9th Grade, 10th Grade, 11th Grade, 12th Grade, Post secondary

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The GMADE™ (Group Mathematics Assessment and Diagnostic Evaluation) is a diagnostic mathematics test that measures individual student skills in the main areas of math, and helps K-12 educators pinpoint areas where students need instruction. The assesmsent aligns with standards by the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) and can be used for growth monitoring, strengths and areas for improvement identification, and student placement.

Domain: Academic Knowledge and Skills

Subdomain: Math

Grades: Kindergarten, 1st Grade, 2nd Grade, 3rd Grade, 4th Grade, 5th Grade, 6th Grade, 7th Grade, 8th Grade, 9th Grade, 10th Grade, 11th Grade, 12th Grade

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The Healthy Families Parenting Inventory (HFPI) is a self-reporting instrument that measures nine parenting domains: social support, problem-solving, depression, personal care, mobilizing resources, role satisfaction, parent/child interaction, home environment, and parenting efficacy. The instrument, which contains 63 items, is often used for assessing home visitation early childhood programs.

Domain: Home and Community

Subdomain: Parenting Attitudes and Behaviors

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COR Advantage is a whole-child assessment built on 36 items that are proven by research to best prepare children for school success. COR Advantage focuses on children’s naturally occurring activities rather than their performance on tests, allowing for a broader assessment of each child’s development. It can be used with any developmentally-appropriate curriculum, and assesses all key developmental areas of children’s progress.

Domain: Academic Knowledge and Skills

Subdomain: Math

Grades: < 3 Years, Pre-Kindergarten

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HMH Math Inventory is an assessment that can be used for universal screening and growth monitoring. The adaptive, computer-based test can be taken three to five times a year and includes an Early Numeracy screener, growth-mindset feedback, and read alouds in English and Spanish. The HMH Math Inventory was developed with guidance from the National Math Panel, the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, and aligns with the Common Core State Standards.

Domain: Academic Knowledge and Skills

Subdomain: Math

Grades: 2nd Grade, 3rd Grade, 4th Grade, 5th Grade, 6th Grade, 7th Grade, 8th Grade, 9th Grade, 10th Grade, 11th Grade, 12th Grade

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The Instructional Quality Assessment (IQA) is a classroom observation instrument that rates the nature and quality of classroom instruction by considering students’ opportunities to engage in cognitively demanding mathematical work and discussions. The IQA uses the following elements to assess instruction: potential of the task, task implementation, rigor of the discussion, teacher’s questions, and accountable talk.

Domain: Schooling

Subdomain: Teaching

Grades: 9th Grade, 10th Grade, 11th Grade, 12th Grade

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The Iowa Assessments replaced the Iowa Tests of Basic Skills (ITBS) and Iowa Test of Educational Development (ITED) in 2011-2012 to align with the Iowa Common Core Standards. The assessment can be administered to students in grades K-12 and can be used for monitoring progress and identifying students who may need intervention. The Iowa Assessments measure students' abilities in reading, language, mathematics, social studies, and science. The test is consistent with Response to Intervention (RTI) programs and is often used with the Cognitive Abilities Test (CogAT).

Domain: Academic Knowledge and Skills

Subdomain: English Language Arts

Grades: Kindergarten, 1st Grade, 2nd Grade, 3rd Grade, 4th Grade, 5th Grade, 6th Grade, 7th Grade, 8th Grade, 9th Grade, 10th Grade, 11th Grade, 12th Grade

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i-Ready is a system that provides assessments to identify strengths and weaknesses of students in grades K-8. i-Ready offers a Diagnostic test that adapts to student responses and measures skills that fall below and above the student's grade level. The Standards Mastery test assesses grade level standards and helps educators measure and monitor growth for each student.

Domain: Academic Knowledge and Skills

Subdomain: English Language Arts

Grades: Kindergarten, 1st Grade, 2nd Grade, 3rd Grade, 4th Grade, 5th Grade, 6th Grade, 7th Grade, 8th Grade

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The Kaufman Survey of Early Academic and Language Skills (K-SEALS) is a test designed for students in grades PreK-1. Through the vocabulary subtest, number, letter & words subtest, and articulation subtest, the assessment measures school readiness and can identify gifted students. Educators and trained professionals in schools, speech and language clinics, and medical agencies can administer the test.

Domain: Academic Knowledge and Skills

Subdomain: English Language Arts

Grades: Pre-Kindergarten, Kindergarten, 1st Grade

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The Keys to Interactive Parenting Scale (KIPS) is an observation-based instrument that assesses parent-child interaction during play. The instrument has been rated “A-Reliability and Validity Demonstrated” by California Evidence-Based Clearinghouse and recommended by Parents As Teachers, Healthy Families America, SafeCare, and WAVE Trust & Department for Education, United Kingdom. The observation portion of KIPS, which helps measure 12 key parenting behaviors, can be completed in 15 minutes, while scoring takes approximately 20 minutes.

Domain: Home and Community

Subdomain: Parent-Child Interactions

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The Mathematical Knowledge for Teaching (MKT) instrument measures the specialized knowledge of K-8 teachers of mathematics use in teaching. These measures include items that reflect the real mathematics tasks teachers face in classrooms, such as assessing student work, representing numbers and operations, and explaining common mathematical rules or procedures. Assessments composed of these problems can be used to measure the effectiveness of mathematics-focused professional development.

Domain: Schooling

Subdomain: Teaching

Grades: 6th Grade, 7th Grade, 8th Grade

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Making Sense of Science (Electric Circuits Assessment) is a written test that measures teachers' pedagogical content knowledge regarding electric circuits. Test items are aligned to the National Science Education Standards Benchmarks, the Full Option Science System curriculum, and the Science and Technology Concepts curriculum. Items reflect the format and content of the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) and National Assessment of Education Progress (NAEP) assessments. The measure has been used as a pre- and post-test to assess the effects of professional development programs. There is also a student written assessment with 15 linked items.

Domain: Schooling

Subdomain: Teaching

Grades: 3rd Grade, 4th Grade, 5th Grade

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The MAP Growth Math NWEA, which are aligned to the NWEA math standards, and the MAP Growth Math Common Core, which are aligned to the Common Core State Standards, are course-specific assessments that allow for tracking growth and improving instruction. The adaptive test is specifically for Algebra 1 and 2, Integrated Math 1, 2, and 3, and Geometry.

Domain: Academic Knowledge and Skills

Subdomain: Math

Grades: 9th Grade, 10th Grade, 11th Grade, 12th Grade

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MAP Reading Fluency is an assessment for students in grades K-3 that tests their reading fluency, comprehension, and foundational skills. The computer adaptive test can be administered in a group setting in 20 minutes and provides actionable data and results automatically. MAP Reading Fluency is an addition to the MAP Suite, which also contains MAP GROWTH and MAP Skills.

Domain: Academic Knowledge and Skills

Subdomain: English Language Arts

Grades: Kindergarten, 1st Grade, 2nd Grade, 3rd Grade

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The Mathematics Teaching Efficacy Belief Instrument (MTEBI) is a domain-specific modification of the Science Teaching Efficacy Belief Instrument (STEBI). The MTEBI measures pre-service teacher's beliefs regarding mathematical instruction, students' ability to learn mathematics and teacher's sense of efficacy in teaching mathematics.

Domain: Schooling

Subdomain: Teaching

Grades: 9th Grade, 10th Grade, 11th Grade, 12th Grade

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MAP Growth is a comprehensive assessment that focuses on tracking the growth of students in grades K-12 through the school year. Though the test is untimed, each subject takes approximately 45 minutes to complete. The computer adaptive assessment is aligned with the Common Core State Standards and Next Generation Science Standards. MAP GROWTH is part of the MAP Suite, which also contains MAP Skills.

Domain: Academic Knowledge and Skills

Subdomain: English Language Arts

Grades: Kindergarten, 1st Grade, 2nd Grade, 3rd Grade, 4th Grade, 5th Grade, 6th Grade, 7th Grade, 8th Grade, 9th Grade, 10th Grade, 11th Grade, 12th Grade

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The Phonological Awareness Literacy Screening (PALS) is a screening, diagnostic, and progress monitoring tool that focuses on the fundamental literacy skills. The assessment offers instruments for PreK, K, and 1-3, with a Spanish version available as well. PALS is the state-provided screening assessment for Virginia's Early Intervention Reading Initiative (EIRI). PALS Quick Checks also provide an opportunity for educators to monitor student progress.

Domain: Academic Knowledge and Skills

Subdomain: English Language Arts

Grades: Pre-Kindergarten, Kindergarten, 1st Grade, 2nd Grade, 3rd Grade

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The Parent Education Profile (PEP) is a 75-item observation instrument that measures 15 subdomains. The instrument, which is designed for children from birth to 8 years old, measures parents' behavior related to children's literacy skills. The PEP is available in both English and Spanish.

Domain: Home and Community

Subdomain: Parent-Child Interactions

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The Parent Reading Belief Inventory (PRBI) is a self-reporting instrument that assess parents' beliefs about the frequency, quality, and importance of their child's literacy activities. The 42-item instrument provides seven subscales: positive affect, verbal participation, resources, teaching efficacy, knowledge base, environmental input, and reading instruction.

Domain: Home and Community

Subdomain: Parenting Attitudes and Behaviors

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