Parenting Sense of Competence Scale (PSOC)

The Parenting Sense of Competence Scale (PSOC) is a self-reporting instrument that measures and assesses parent self-efficacy. The instrument, designed for parents with children birth-17 years of age, was originally developed by Gibaud-Wallston and Wandersman (1978) with skill knowledge and value competence subscales but has been translated and revised by Johnston and Marsh (1989) for use with older children.


Child Independence,
Parent Emphathy,
Child Expectations,
Postive Involvement,
Parent Support,
Skills and Behaviors,
Emotional Support,
Child Development,
Family Management,
Parent-Child Relationship
Birth-17 years

Administration Information

Not specified

Access and Use

Open Access
Peer-Reviewed Study Citations

Haack, Lauren M., Alyson C. Gerdes, Brian W. Schneider, and Gabriela Dieguez Hurtado. 2011. “Advancing Our Knowledge of ADHD in Latino Children: Psychometric and Cultural Properties of Spanish-Versions of Parental/Family Functioning Measures.” Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology 39 (1): 33–43.

Secer, Zarife, Hulya Gulay Ogelman, Alev Onder, and Semra Berengi. 2012. “Analysing Mothers’ Self-Efficacy Perception towards Parenting in Relation to Peer Relationships of 5-6 Year-Old Preschool Children.” Educational Sciences: Theory and Practice 12 (3): 2001–8.

Sheeber, Lisa B., John R. Seeley, Edward G. Feil, Betsy Davis, Erik Sorensen, Derek B. Kosty, and Peter M. Lewinsohn. 2012. “Development and Pilot Evaluation of an Internet-Facilitated Cognitive-Behavioral Intervention for Maternal Depression.” Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 80 (5): 739–49.

Giallo, Rebecca, Mandy Kienhuis, Karli Treyvaud, and Jan Matthews. 2008. “A Psychometric Evaluation of the Parent Self-Efficacy in Managing the Transition to School Scale.” Australian Journal of Educational & Developmental Psychology 8: 36–48.

Hill, C., and J. Rose. 2009. “Parenting Stress in Mothers of Adults with an Intellectual Disability: Parental Cognitions in Relation to Child Characteristics and Family Support.” Journal of Intellectual Disability Research 53 (12): 969–80.

Hassall, R., J. Rose, and J. McDonald. 2005. “Parenting Stress in Mothers of Children with an Intellectual Disability: The Effects of Parental Cognitions in Relation to Child Characteristics and Family Support.” Journal of Intellectual Disability Research 49 (6): 405–18.


Manual scoring
Psychometric Citations

Gilmore, L. and Cuskelly, M. (2008). Factor structure of the parenting sense of competence scale using a normative sample. Child: Care, Health, and Development, 35 (1), 48-55