PALS is used to investigate the relationship between a student's learning environment and their affect, motivation, and behavior. It consists of both a student scale and a teacher scale. The student scale investigates personal achievement goal orientations, perceptions of teacher goals, perceptions of the goal structures in the classroom, achievement related beliefs, and perceptions of parents and home life. The teacher scale investigates perceptions of goal structures in the school, goal-related approaches to instruction, and personal teaching efficacy.
Learning environments, Achievement beliefs
A trained research assistant should administer the scales in a student's normal classroom. Typically all instructions and items are read aloud to students by the research assistant as they take the exam on paper.
Access and Use
Alivernini, F., Manganelli, S., & Lucidi, F. (2018). Personal and classroom achievement goals: Their structures and relationships. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 36(4), 354-365. https://doi.org/10.1177/0734282916679758
Morrone, A. S., Harkness, S. S., D'ambrosio, B., & Caulfield, R. (2004). Patterns of instructional discourse that promote the perception of mastery goals in a social constructivist mathematics course. Educational Studies in Mathematics, 56(1), 19-38. https://doi.org/10.1023/B:EDUC.0000028401.51537.a5
Murayama, K., & Elliot, A. J. (2009). The joint influence of personal achievement goals and classroom goal structures on achievement-relevant outcomes. Journal of Educational Psychology, 101(2), 432. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0014221
Urdan, T., & Midgley, C. (2003). Changes in the perceived classroom goal structure and pattern of adaptive learning during early adolescence. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 28(4), 524-551. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0361-476X(02)00060-7
Wolters, C. A., & Daugherty, S. G. (2007). Goal structures and teachers' sense of efficacy: Their relation and association to teaching experience and academic level. Journal of Educational Psychology, 99(1), 181. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0622.214.171.124
Anderman, E. M., Urdan, T., & Roeser, R. (2003, March). The patterns of adaptive learning survey: History, development, and psychometric properties. In Indicators of Positive Development Conference (pp. 12-13).
Hackel, T. S., Jones, M. H., Carbonneau, K. J., & Mueller, C. E. (2016). Re-examining achievement goal instrumentation: Convergent validity of AGQ and PALS. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 46, 73-80. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cedpsych.2016.04.005
Midgley, C., Maehr, M. L., Hruda, L. Z., Anderman, E., Anderman, L., Freeman, K. E., & Urdan, T. (2000). Manual for the patterns of adaptive learning scales. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan.
Ross, M. E., Shannon, D. M., Salisbury-Glennon, J. D., & Guarino, A. (2002). The patterns of adaptive learning survey: A comparison across grade levels. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 62(3), 483-497. https://doi.org/10.1177/00164402062003006
Ross, M. E., Blackburn, M., & Forbes, S. (2005). Reliability generalization of the patterns of adaptive learning survey goal orientation scales. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 65(3), 451-464. https://doi.org/10.1177/0013164404272496