Patterns of Adaptive Learning Scales (PALS)

PALS is used to investigate the relationship between a student's learning environment and their affect, motivation, and behavior. It consists of both a student scale and a teacher scale. The student scale investigates personal achievement goal orientations, perceptions of teacher goals, perceptions of the goal structures in the classroom, achievement related beliefs, and perceptions of parents and home life. The teacher scale investigates perceptions of goal structures in the school, goal-related approaches to instruction, and personal teaching efficacy. 

Content

Domains
Self Management,
Social Awareness
Subdomain

Learning environments, Achievement beliefs

 

Grades
Kindergarten,
1st Grade,
2nd Grade,
3rd Grade,
4th Grade,
5th Grade,
6th Grade,
7th Grade,
8th Grade,
9th Grade,
10th Grade,
11th Grade,
12th Grade
Languages
English
Respondent
Student,
Teacher

Administration Information

Length
40 minutes, 94 items
Qualifications

A trained research assistant should administer the scales in a student's normal classroom. Typically all instructions and items are read aloud to students by the research assistant as they take the exam on paper. 

Administration
Paper

Access and Use

Price

Free

Contact

Eric Anderman

(614) 292-9860
anderman.1@osu.edu

Open Access
Yes
Use in Research

Alivernini, F., Manganelli, S., & Lucidi, F. (2018). Personal and classroom achievement goals: Their structures and relationships. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment36(4), 354-365. https://doi.org/10.1177/0734282916679758

Morrone, A. S., Harkness, S. S., D'ambrosio, B., & Caulfield, R. (2004). Patterns of instructional discourse that promote the perception of mastery goals in a social constructivist mathematics course. Educational Studies in Mathematics56(1), 19-38.  https://doi.org/10.1023/B:EDUC.0000028401.51537.a5      

Murayama, K., & Elliot, A. J. (2009). The joint influence of personal achievement goals and classroom goal structures on achievement-relevant outcomes. Journal of Educational Psychology101(2), 432. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0014221

Urdan, T., & Midgley, C. (2003). Changes in the perceived classroom goal structure and pattern of adaptive learning during early adolescence. Contemporary Educational Psychology28(4), 524-551. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0361-476X(02)00060-7

Wolters, C. A., & Daugherty, S. G. (2007). Goal structures and teachers' sense of efficacy: Their relation and association to teaching experience and academic level. Journal of Educational Psychology99(1), 181. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0663.99.1.181

Psychometrics

Scoring
Manual scoring
Psychometric References

Anderman, E. M., Urdan, T., & Roeser, R. (2003, March). The patterns of adaptive learning survey: History, development, and psychometric properties. In Indicators of Positive Development Conference (pp. 12-13).  

Hackel, T. S., Jones, M. H., Carbonneau, K. J., & Mueller, C. E. (2016). Re-examining achievement goal instrumentation: Convergent validity of AGQ and PALS. Contemporary Educational Psychology46, 73-80. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cedpsych.2016.04.005

Midgley, C., Maehr, M. L., Hruda, L. Z., Anderman, E., Anderman, L., Freeman, K. E., & Urdan, T. (2000). Manual for the patterns of adaptive learning scales. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan.

Ross, M. E., Shannon, D. M., Salisbury-Glennon, J. D., & Guarino, A. (2002). The patterns of adaptive learning survey: A comparison across grade levels. Educational and Psychological Measurement62(3), 483-497. https://doi.org/10.1177/00164402062003006   

Ross, M. E., Blackburn, M., & Forbes, S. (2005). Reliability generalization of the patterns of adaptive learning survey goal orientation scales. Educational and Psychological Measurement65(3), 451-464. https://doi.org/10.1177/0013164404272496

National Comparison
No
Item Type
Likert