School Social Behavior Scales, 2nd Edition (SSBS-2)

The School Social Behavior Scales (SSBS) are sold by Brookes Publishing and measure social competence and antisocial behavior (with 32 items measuring each). They are filled out by teachers and evaluated by psychologists, and are meant to be accompanied by the Home & Community Social Behavior Scales (HCSBS)--to be completed by a parent or other adult the student knows well--for a complete assessment.


Self Management,
Self Awareness,
Relationship Skills,
Social Awareness

Social competence: Peer relations,Compliance, Academic behavior
Antisocial behavior: Hostile/Irritable, Anti-social/Aggressive, Defiant/Disruptive

1st Grade,
2nd Grade,
3rd Grade,
4th Grade,
5th Grade,
6th Grade,
7th Grade,
8th Grade,
9th Grade,
10th Grade,
11th Grade,
12th Grade

Administration Information

10 Minutes

No qualifications required for purchase; assessment should be interpreted by a trained professional such as a school psychologist


Access and Use


Rating form $39.95, 
User's Guide $49.95


Brookes Publishing Customer Service: Available for assistance Monday-Friday 9:00 a.m. – 5:00 p.m. ET
U.S. and Canada | 1-800-638-3775
International | 1-410-337-9580

Open Access
Use in Research

Grossman, D. C., Neckerman, H. J., Koepsell, T. D., Liu, P. Y., Asher, K. N., Beland, K., Frey, K., & Rivara, F. P. (1997). Effectiveness of a violence prevention curriculum among children in elementary school: A randomized controlled trial. JAMA, 277(20), 1605-1611.

Taub, J. (2002). Evaluation of the Second Step violence prevention program at a rural elementary school. School Psychology Review, 31(2), 186-200.

Zion, E., & Jenvey, V. B. (2006). Temperament and social behaviour at home and school among typically developing children and children with an intellectually disability. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research50(6), 445-456.


Manual scoring
Psychometric References

Alfonso, V. C., Rentz, E., Orlovsky, K., & Ramos, E. (2007). Test review: School social behavior scales. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 25(1), 82-92.

Crowley, S. L., & Merrell, K. W. (2003). The structure of the School Social Behavior Scales: A confirmatory factor analysis. Assessment for Effective Intervention, 28(2), 41-55.

Emerson, E. N., Crowley, S. L., & Merrell, K. W. (1994). Convergent validity of the school social behavior scales with the Child Behavior Checklist and Teacher's Report Form. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 12(4), 372-380.

Merrell, K. W., & Caldarella, P. (1999). Social-behavioral assessment of at-risk early adolescent students: Psychometric characteristics and validity of a parent report form of the School Social Behavior Scales. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 17(1), 36-49.

Merrell, K. W., Sanders, D. E., & Popinga, M. R. (1993). Teacher ratings of student social behavior as a predictor of special education status: Discriminant validity of the School Social Behavior Scales. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 11(3), 220-231.

National Comparison
Item Type

Psychometric Considerations

Psychometrics is the science of psychological assessment. A primary goal of EdInstruments is to provide information on crucial psychometric topics including Validity and Reliability – essential concepts of evaluation, which indicate how well an instrument measures a construct - as well as additional properties that are worthy of consideration when selecting an instrument of measurement.

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