Strength & Difficulties Questionnaire

The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) is a brief behavioural screening questionnaire about 3-16 year olds. It exists in several versions to meet the needs of researchers, clinicians and educationalist. The SDQ contains some positive and negatively worded items. The 25 items are divided between 5 scales of 5 items each, generating scores for conduct problems, hyperactivity, emotional symptoms, peer problems and prosocial behaviour. All but the last one are summed to generate a total difficulties scores.

Content

Skills
Conduct problems
Grades
Pre-Kindergarten
Languages
89 different languages

Administration Information

Length
25 items
Price

Free

Training
None
Qualifications
None
Group/Individual
Individual
Administration
Paper
Professional
Non-Professional

Access and Use

Open Access
Yes
Peer-Reviewed Study Citations

https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/0143034311415908

Gross, T. J., Duncan, J., Kim, S. Y., Alex Mason, W., & Haggerty, K. P. (2019). Predicting School Suspension Risk from Eighth through Tenth Grade Using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Contemporary School Psychology, 23(3), 270–289.

Twyford, J. M., Buckley, L., Moffa, K., & Dowdy, E. (2019). The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) Self-Report: Factor Structure of the Self-Report Form in Latinx Youth. International Journal of School & Educational Psychology, 7(3), 187–200.

Chauvin, B., & Leonova, T. (2016). The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) Revisited in a French-Speaking Population: Proposition of a Reduced Version of the Parent SDQ. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 34(4), 389–396.

Sosu, E. M., & Schmidt, P. (2017). Tracking Emotional and Behavioral Changes in Childhood: Does the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire Measure the Same Constructs across Time? Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 35(7), 643–656.

Aitken, M., Martinussen, R., Wolfe, R. G., & Tannock, R. (2015). Factor Structure of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire in a Canadian Elementary School Sample. Assessment for Effective Intervention, 40(3), 155–165.

Lappalainen, K., Savolainen, H., Sointu, E. T., & Epstein, M. H. (2014). Cross-Informant Agreement and Stability of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire among Finnish Mainstream and Special Education Students. International Journal of School & Educational Psychology, 2(1), 24–34.

Goodman, R., Meltzer, H., & Bailey, V. (2003). The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire: A pilot study on the validity of the self-report version. International Review of Psychiatry, 15(1-2), 173-177. doi:10.1080/0954026021000046137

The development of the Children's Empathic Attitudes Questionnaire using classical and Rasch analyses

Psychometrics

Scoring
Manual scoring
Psychometric Citations

Niclasen, J., & Dammeyer, J. (2016). Psychometric Properties of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire and Mental Health Problems among Children with Hearing Loss. Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, 21(2), 129–140.

Kersten, P., Czuba, K., McPherson, K., Dudley, M., Elder, H., Tauroa, R., & Vandal, A. (2016). A Systematic Review of Evidence for the Psychometric Properties of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 40(1), 64–75.