Teachers were asked to complete one for each student in their class as a way to identify high-risk children. Teachers were asked to describe, among other things, whether the child completed assignments, was friendly, broke rules, was disobedient, fought, or yelled at others. Teachers used a Likert scale of 0 to 5, with responses including almost never (0), rarely (1), sometimes (2), often (3), very often (4), and almost always (5). The original measure was 16 items, later revised by discarding two and adding 21 more. The items are aggregated into four subscales (Overt Aggression Subscale, Oppositional Subscale, Covert Antisocial Subscale, Authority Acceptance Subscale). For those looking for a scale with less cost and time to administer than the structured interview session, the TOCA-C was been developed in 2009. The TOCA-Checklist is a written, checklist-based version of the TOCA-R.
Aggression, Authority, Opposition
Interviewer must be trained in administration of the TOCA-R.
Access and Use
Free, but must contact researcher for use.
Dr. Sheppard Kellam
Harnish, J. D., Dodge, K. A., Valente, E., & Conduct Problems Prevention Research Group. (1995). Mother‐child interaction quality as a partial mediator of the roles of maternal depressive symptomatology and socioeconomic status in the development of child behavior problems. Conduct problems prevention research group. Child Development, 66(3), 739-753. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.1995.tb00902.x
Linares, L. O., Rosbruch, N., Stern, M. B., Edwards, M. E., Walker, G., Abikoff, H. B., & Alvir, J. M. J. (2005). Developing cognitive‐social‐emotional competencies to enhance academic learning. Psychology in the Schools, 42(4), 405-417. https://doi.org/10.1002/pits.20066
Petras, H., Chilcoat, H. D., Leaf, P. J., Ialongo, N. S., & Kellam, S. G. (2004). Utility of TOCA-R scores during the elementary school years in identifying later violence among adolescent males. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 43(1), 88-96. https://doi.org/10.1097/00004583-200401000-00018
Reid, M. J., Webster-Stratton, C., & Baydar, N. (2004). Halting the development of conduct problems in Head Start children: The effects of parent training. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 33(2), 279-291. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15374424jccp3302_10
Stormshak, E. A., Bellanti, C. J., & Bierman, K. L. (1996). The quality of sibling relationships and the development of social competence and behavioral control in aggressive children. Developmental Psychology, 32(1), 79.
See technical manual: