Inclusion of Other in the Self Scale

Social psychologist Arthur Aron and colleagues (1992) developed the single-item Inclusion of Other in the Self (IOS) scale to measure how close the respondent feels with another person or group. The IOS has been given to respondents as young as five years old (Cameron, 2006), as well as to teens and adults. It has also been used with respondents living on a low income and previously incarcerated respondents (Folk et al., 2016; Mashek, Cannaday, & Tangney, 2007). Respondents see seven pairs of circles that range from just touching to almost completely overlapping. One circle in each pair is labeled “self,” and the second circle is labeled “other.” Respondents choose one of the seven pairs to answer the question, “Which picture best describes your relationship with [this person/group]?” Researchers indicate what person or group the “other” circle stands for (e.g., “your romantic partner,” “your parents,” “your community,” etc.). 1 = no overlap; 2 = little overlap; 3 = some overlap; 4 = equal overlap; 5 = strong overlap; 6 = very strong overlap; 7 = most overlap.

Content

Topics
Relationship Management
Skills
Social Relationships
Grades
1st Grade,
2nd Grade,
3rd Grade,
4th Grade,
5th Grade,
6th Grade,
7th Grade,
8th Grade,
9th Grade,
10th Grade,
11th Grade,
12th Grade,
Post secondary
Respondent
Student

Administration Information

Length
<3 minutes
Price

Free

Training
None
Qualifications
None
Group/Individual
Individual
Administration
Self-report,
Paper

Psychometrics

Scoring
Manual scoring,
Self-scoring
Open Access
Yes
Used in Peer-Reviewed Research
Yes